How to stop bleeding in an emergency until help arrives

Serious bleeding should not be ignored; This is urgent. External bleeding is the leading cause of preventable death before people reach the hospital. according to the Hartford Consensusa committee led by US government agencies and medical practitioners to improve survival from active shooters and mass casualties.

Mass shooting is one horrifying way to suddenly experience life-threatening bleeding, but it can most often happen in your home or on the road.

“Bleeding is a preventable cause of death in people after injuries,” said Dr. Kenji Inaba, a trauma surgeon at the University of Southern California’s Keck Hospital and chairman of the National Education Committee of the National Stop the bleeding program. “You can be driving on the highway to work and there could be a traffic accident right in front of you. This can happen in someone’s garage while they are working on a woodworking project. This can happen in the kitchen when you are preparing dinner. This is something that can really happen anywhere.”

Although you may not be a first aid official, anyone can provide lifesaving assistance. During events with mass casualties, 80% victims taken to the hospital by members of the public.

After calling 911, identifying the source of your own or someone else’s bleeding and stopping that blood flow can be the difference between life and death. Once you realize that the bleeding is heavy, you may only have a few minutes to intervene.

“Every second counts. The sooner we can start an intervention to stop this bleeding, the better chance we can save a life when the patient is admitted to the hospital,” Inaba said. Here’s how to do it:

1. Call 911 and be specific.

In most cases, you should call 911 for help before starting to manage bleeding. Thus, you do not have to provide first aid.

Generally, Inaba recommends calling 911 as early as possible, but he noted that there are exceptions.

“There will be situations where, for example, you go a long way from being able to call 911. So in such a situation, we would… recommend that someone take life-saving measures to stop the bleeding before going on the 10-minute journey to make a 911 call. “

If you can, be more specific than “Help, I have an emergency!” on your call and give me the exact address, said Kyle Bates, director of the paramedic program at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County.

“People are panicking and don’t know where they are. “I’m at Walmart.” Great, which one? Bates said. “I was in an ambulance where I am looking and looking for a person to take care of.”

2. Determine where the bleeding is occurring and determine if it is life threatening.

There is a difference between a minor injury and a life-threatening situation that needs to be addressed as soon as possible. If the bleeding you see is continuous, large in volume, or spouts like a “sprinkler”, it is life-threatening. Stop the bleedingwho chairs the American College of Surgeons’ Injury Committee.

If you’re wondering how much bleeding is too much, try measuring the volume of a soda can. If you see half a can of soda on a bleeding person, it’s life-threatening. video.

There may be pools of blood under your clothes, so be sure to look underneath too.

“Always check for multiple sources of bleeding,” especially before applying a tourniquet, Inaba said. “Even the feeling of wetness under clothing can be a very quick test.”

Inaba suggested a scenario in which one notices an injury to the shin but does not see the injury between the knee and groin hidden by the clothing. In this case, he said, applying a tourniquet below the knee could make things worse.

3. Apply direct pressure to the wound.

As soon as you detect heavy bleeding, stop it by applying direct pressure to the wound.

“The pressure needed is what it takes to stop the bleeding,” Inaba said. “In the vast majority of cases, applying pressure can be successful in stopping this bleeding.”

Ideally you will have nitrile or vinyl gloves to protect yourself from blood-borne pathogens, Bates said. But if you don’t have gloves handy, find something like a piece of clothing – like a shirt – and put it between your hands and the wound. “If you have gauze, fine,” he said.

One common mistake people make, according to Bates, is to stop pressing on the wound to see if the bleeding has stopped. It’s best to just keep applying constant pressure until the ambulance arrives, he said.

If necessary, warm the bleeding person with blankets.

“Cold-bloodedness doesn’t fold,” Bates said. “People with hypothermia or a cold will continue to bleed.”

4. Pack the wound if the bleeding area is large.

If the wound is large and deep, direct pressure with the hands will not be enough. That’s when you want to bandage the wound.

Hemostatic gauze designed to accelerate blood clotting and quickly stop bleeding. If you have one or are in your nearest first aid kit, this is the perfect item to pack into a wound.

If you don’t have gauze, “try your best with what you have,” Bates said. “Look for some clean material, not stained with dirt. Maybe a clean tissue or paper towel.”

5. Apply a tourniquet immediately if you find that the injury to the limb is bleeding heavily.

There are emergency situations when wound dressing or direct pressure is not enough. Sometimes you try these steps, realize they don’t work, and move on to the harness. But if you see blood doing what Bates calls “squirt-squirt-squirt,” apply a tourniquet immediately.

“When you see massive bleeding, it just spreads or hits the ceiling and coats the walls… you bypass it all and go straight to the tourniquet,” Bates said.

Inaba noted that tourniquets also work when you have an injury to a limb and need to move and can’t apply direct pressure all the time. “The advantage of a tourniquet is that once you put it on, you just leave it on and you can remove your hands,” he said.

Keep in mind that harnesses are for arms and legs only; continue to apply direct pressure to any wounds on the torso and other parts of the body.

Commercial turnstiles more effective than improvised in case of an emergency. When done correctly, commercial tourniquets are effective in preventing blood loss by compressing tissue in the area.

“It essentially flattens that blood vessel and prevents blood from passing through. By doing this, you interrupt the flow of blood from the heart to the fingers or toes and stop bleeding or blood loss from that cut vessel,” Inaba said.

Bates said that public combat turnstile, or CAT, is “one of the best”. Both the checkpoint and SOF tactical harnesscalled SOFT-T are recommended by the American College of Surgeons Trauma Committee.

If you are in a public building, you can find a commercial tourniquet in a bleeding control kit next to an automatic defibrillator for emergency care.

Improvised harnesses should be a last resort because they are a poor substitute for a commercial harness, but research from mass shootings showed them work in emergencies. Bates thinks leather belts don’t work because they aren’t wide enough or tight enough, but he has seen a nylon tie work effectively. A man injured in a 2007 Virginia Tech shooting applied an effective tourniquet to the gunshot wound. with electric cord. First Care Provider, a veteran-run non-profit organization dedicated to educating the public about first aid. made a video with a recommendation using a carabiner and key ring if you need to make your own harness.

roll up harness 2-3 inches above the injury, and then pull the free end of the cord’s velcro strap, thread it through the buckle, and secure at the other end.

Wind windlass rod until you can no longer twist and the circulation stops. Insufficient tightening of the tourniquet is a critical mistake of many people.

“It’s right when I don’t feel their pulse anymore. That’s how tight the tourniquet should be. We don’t want bloodshed,” Bates said. “BUT a tourniquet is a very painful thing, but it’s much better than bleeding out.”

Safe rod by fastening it with another velcro strap to keep your work from falling apart.

Finally, pay attention to the time a tourniquet has been applied because too long a tourniquet can cause tissue damage. Some harnesses will have a blank space where you can easily write it down.

To learn more or receive official training, take the official Stop the Bleeding course in person or online. You can also ask your local firefighters or ambulance team to provide training, Bates suggested.

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